Different Applications of Nanotechnology to Enhance Thermal Performance of Heat Pipes

Document Type : Original Article


Energy Systems Engineering Section, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Heat pipes are heat transfer devices which are widely used due to their higher effective thermal conductivity in comparison with conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. Several kinds of heat pipes exist such as pulsating heat pipe, rotating heat pipe, wick heat pipe, vapor chamber and thermosiphons. Heat pipes contain a fluid which evaporates by receiving heat at evaporator and then the vapor is converted into liquid by heat dissipation in the condenser. Different types of heat pipes are classified based on the mechanism of return of condensed fluid from the condenser to the evaporator. Nanotechnology is mainly used in recent years to enhance heat transfer in different mediums as well as heat pipes in the form of nano-fluids or nano-surfaces. This paper gives a comprehensive review on the most recent applications of nanotechnology to enhance the performance of these heat pipes.


       [1]       Nazari, M. A., Ahmadi, M. H., Ghasempour, R., Shafii, M. B., Mahian, O., Kalogirou, S., & Wongwises, S. (2018). A review on pulsating heat pipes: from solar to cryogenic applications. Applied energy, 222, 475-484.
       [2]       Xing, M., Yu, J., & Wang, R. (2017). Performance of a vertical closed pulsating heat pipe with hydroxylated MWNTs nanofluid. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 112, 81-88.
       [3]       Gupta, N. K., Tiwari, A. K., & Ghosh, S. K. (2018). Experimental study of thermal performance of nanofluid-filled and nanoparticles-coated mesh wick heat pipes. Journal of Heat Transfer, 140(10), 102403.
       [4]       Vijayakumar, M., Navaneethakrishnan, P., Kumaresan, G., & Kamatchi, R. (2017). A study on heat transfer characteristics of inclined copper sintered wick heat pipe using surfactant free CuO and Al2O3 nanofluids. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 81, 190-198.
       [5]       Uddin, Z., Harmand, S., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Computational modeling of heat transfer in rotating heat pipes using nanofluids: A numerical study using PSO. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 100(112), 44-54.
       [6]       Ramezanizadeh, M., Nazari, M. A., Ahmadi, M. H., & Açıkkalp, E. (2018). Application of nanofluids in thermosyphons: a review. Journal of Molecular Liquids.
       [7]       Ji, X., Xu, J., Li, H., & Huang, G. (2017). Switchable heat transfer mechanisms of nucleation and convection by wettability match of evaporator and condenser for heat pipes: Nano-structured surface effect. Nano energy, 38, 313-325.
       [8]       Tang, H., Tang, Y., Wan, Z., Li, J., Yuan, W., Lu, L., ... & Tang, K. (2018). Review of applications and developments of ultra-thin micro heat pipes for electronic cooling. Applied energy, 223, 383-400.
       [9]       Qu, J., Wu, H., Cheng, P., Wang, Q., & Sun, Q. (2017). Recent advances in MEMS-based micro heat pipes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 110, 294-313.
      [10]      Arya, A., Sarafraz, M. M., Shahmiri, S., Madani, S. A. H., Nikkhah, V., & Nakhjavani, S. M. (2018). Thermal performance analysis of a flat heat pipe working with carbon nanotube-water nanofluid for cooling of a high heat flux heater. Heat and Mass Transfer, 54(4), 985-997.
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
September 2020
Pages 20-32
  • Receive Date: 30 September 2023
  • Accept Date: 30 September 2023